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The indigenous Prussians

Historical data

2,500 B.C.
vImmigration of Stone age Indoeuropeans from central Europe to Bjelo- and Central Russia, confirmed by Baltic topographical and hydrographical names.

1,500 B.C.
During the Bronze age the Old Baltic culture separates into Eastern Balts Lithuanians, Latvians) and Western Balts (Prussians, Curonians).

750 B.C.
During the Iron age individual Prussian tribes develop - Sambia, Natangia, Galindia and Sudavia.

484 B.C.
The Greek Herodot writes about the Amber rich north of Europe.

100 B.C.
Gothic people push eastwards from the area of the lower river Weichsel to the river Passarge.

Christian era

The Eastern Goths subjugate the Prussians of Sambia.

A Slavonic expansion pushes the Balts to the north.

around 500
Friendly contacts of the Prussians with Theoderich, king of the Eastern Goths of Ravenna.

beginning 650
Repeated attacks by northern people into Prussia.

around 700
Masovians move into the area of the central Weichsel which was abandoned by the Goths.

Boleslaw I. of Poland makes frequently war to the Prussians, Selencians and Pommeranians which last until 1025.

Bishop Adalbert von Prag missions in Prussia, however due to his involvement with Boleslaw I. of Poland whose hostile record is well remembered, he is ordered to leave the country. Adalbert ignores the warning and when he returns he is killed on April 23.

1107 - 1115
Boleslaw III. attacks Southern Prussia.

1147 - 1161
Boleslaw IV. resumes the agressions of his predecessors on Prussia. 

around 1200
The Prussian population is estimated to count 200,000 persons. The Teutonic Order will settle later around 130,000 foreigners.

The Cistersians monk Christian is ordained as the first Bishop in Prussia although Prussia has not yet been conquered.

1216 / 1217
Revenge attacks by Prussian tribes on Masovian territory.

A Polish crusading army expells the Prussians from their homeland in Kulm and Löbau.

The Polish Duke Conrad of Masovia calls for help against Prussians incursions at the Highmaster of the Teutonic Order and promises as reward the Prussian lands of Kulmer and Löbau.
Emperor Frederic II. entitles with the “Golden bull” the Teutonic Order to conquer and missionize the Land Prusa.

Hermann Balk lands with delegates of the Teutonic Order at the Western bank of the river Weichsel.

20,000 crusaders led by Heinrichs III. von Meißen conquers Prussian settlements around the area of the Old Truso next to the city of Elbing.

The entire military forces of the Teutonic Order take the strategic important fortification of Honeda, destroy it and build a castle with the name of Balga.

First coordinated defense efforts by the Prussian tribes to counter the attacks of the Teutonic Order.

The conquered Prussian tribes of Pomesania, Warmia, Pogesania, North-Natangia and Bartia are forced to sign a treaty with the Order at Christburg, loosing property and many basic rights.

King Ottokar of.Böhmen raids with 60.000 warriors through Sambia. One year later he founds the city of Königsberg.

Rise of the Sambians, Nadrovians, Schalovians and Sudavians against the invaders.

The Teutonic Order is defeated by the Prussian Herkus Monte at Pokarben. 

Submission of Warmia, Natangia and Bartia by the Order.

Herkus Monte is captured by treason and hanged in the forest.

Skomand of Sudavia capitulates as the last Prussian freedom fighter ending a 53 year battle. Many Prussians flee to Lithuania and Masowia.

High Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen declares the use of the Prussian language illegal and punishes the native speakers severely.

The Great Pestulence is carried into Prussia from the Orient.

The battle of the Teutonic Order at Tannenberg against a Polisch-lithuaunian army results in a defeat for the Order and leaves 8.000 people dead.

1. Peace treaty of Thorn makes the Order to give up the territory of Samogaiten and forces to pay 100.000 bohemian Gröscher to Poland.

1431 - 1433
Raids by Poland and by Hussites into Prussia.

1453 - 1466
13 year war between the Order and Poland.

2. Peace treaty of Thorn with the loss of West-Prussia. Königsberg becomes the Seat of the High Master.

The treaty of Krakau ends the war between the Teutonic Order and Poland. Prussia becomes a duchy.

Duke Albrecht founds the Königsberg University.

The first book in the Prussian language is printed in Königsberg.

Brandenburg inherits the Duchy of Prussia.

King Friedrich I. crowns himself in Königsberg as King in Prussia, not as King of Prussia.

King Friedrich II. degrades Prussia to a province, but uses the name „Prussia“ for his entire possessions.

2nd Prussian coronation in Königsberg 

Begin of World War II. in (East)Prussia.

Expulsion of the population of (East)Prussia and placing of the territory under the temporary administration of Poland, Russia and Lithuania.


Historical data Tolkemita e.V.

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